PTET Syllabus and Pattern

PTET Question Paper Pattern and Syllabus

  • Mental Ability
  • Teaching Attitude & Aptitude Test
  • General Awareness, and
  • Language Proficiency (Hindi or English)
Section A: Mental ability Section shall consist of 50 objective type multiple choice questions to test the following abilities: (i) Reasoning, (ii) Imagination, (iii) Judgements Decision Making, (iv)CreativeThinking, (v) Generalization, (vi) Drawing Inferences, etc.
Section B : Teaching Attitude and Aptitude test Section shall consist of 50 questions mainly on the following areas: (i) Social Maturity, (ii) Leadership, (iii) Professional Commitment, (iv) Interpersonal Relations, (v) Communication, (vi) Awareness etc. This will be test of attitudes and awareness in which answers to question will be scoredon a scale of 3,2,0 and -1.
Section C: General awareness Section shall consist of 50 Objective type multiplechoice questions mainly regarding thefdlowing areas: (i) Current affair (National & International), (ii) Indian History & Culture, (iii) India and its natural resources, (iv) Great Indian personalities (Past and Present), (v) Environmental awareness, (vi) Knowledgeabout Rajasthan etc.
Section D: Language Proficiency (English or Hindi) Section shall consists of 50 Objective type multiple choice questions regarding proficiency in Hindi or English Language mainly related to the following aspects: (i) Vocabulary, (ii) Functional Grammar, (iii) Sentence structures, (iv) Comprehension etc.
  1. All questions in Question-Paper shall be objective type multiple choice questions with at least four alternative answers (See sample question under heading ‘Model Question Paper’)
  2. The Paper will be set both in English and Hindi except for the Language Proficiency Section. In case of discrepancy in options of answers or in question paper the English version be treated as final.
  3. The duration of the paper s hall be 3 hours.
  4. Each question will carry 3 marks and the maximum marks in the paper shall be 600.
  5. Full 3 marks will be awarded for each correct answer and one mark will be deducted for every wrong answer. In Attitude & Aptitude Section, however, the answer will be scaled on a scale of 3 to -1 marks. This means that answer to each question will carry marks of 3,2,0and-1
The question paper of each section will be in the form of a test booklet containing 50 questions bearing number 1,2,3,………..50. There would be at least four alternative suggested answers (A) (B) (C) (D) etc. to each question. The candidate will be requiredto choose the correct answer and darken the correct ci rcle by Ball Pen only, correspondingto the question in the answer sheet to be provided to each candidate Mark should be dark and circle filled completely. Dark only one circle for each question as shown in example. Make the mark only in the spaces provided. Please do not make any stray marks on the answer sheet.
Filling of more than one circle for any question or not erasing a mark fully for changing answer will mean rejection of that answer. Rough work must not be done on the answer sheet. Use the space for rough work given in the test booklet The answer sheet will be collected from them at the end ofthe Examination. Assessment will be made only on the basis ofthe answer sheets.
The minimum qualifying marks of written test will be 240 i.e. 40% of the maximum marks.
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PTET 2011 Cut Off

Click Here for LATEST PTET 2012 CUT OFF LIST official website

Older List is Here
Scroll Downwards to get the PTET Cut off List for 2011

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PTET second counselling 2011 : JNVU

Jai Narain Vyas University
Rajasthan Pre B.Ed. (PTET) Online Counseling

Second Counselling Schedule

Round Number : 02

PTET-2011 Result
PTET-2011 परीक्षा-परिणाम
2nd July 2011 
Registration Fee Deposit
पंजीकरण शुल्क जमा
6th August 2011  21th August 2011  
Registration for Counseling
काउंसेलिंग के लिए पंजीकरण
11th Aug 2011, 01:00 PM  22th Aug 2011, 04:00 PM  
Choice Fill
विकल्प भरना
11th Aug 2011, 01:00 PM  22nd Aug 2011, 05:00 PM  
Choice Lock
विकल्प लॉक सुबिधा
19th Aug 2011  22th Aug 2011 , 05:00 PM  
Seat Allotment Result
सीट आबंटन नतीजे
26th Aug 2011, 04:00 PM  
Balance Fee Deposit
शेष शुल्क जमा
27th Aug 2011  5th Sept 2011  
Reporting at Allotted Institute
आवंटित बीएड कॉलेज पर रिपोर्टिंग
28th Aug 2011, 11:00 AM  6th Sept 2011, 5 PM  

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2nd Grade Teachers 2011 Exam Result : RPSC

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Result Declared on Today
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Rajasthan Judicial Services Competition Exam 2011 : RPSC Notification and Advertisement

Rajasthan Judicial Services Competition Exam 2011 : 
RPSC Notification and Advertisement
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How Students can Make Money Online : 7 Points

I received an email the other day from a College Student wanting to know how they could find some quick ways to make money online. The email stated they didn’t have a lot of time because of their studies. So after giving it some thought, I came up with a list of 7 quick ways college students to make money online.

I dismissed blogging in general because it takes some time to learn how to make money fast (the exception is local websites and blogs, see below). I assumed the emailer needed to find ways to make money fast.

Here are my suggestions to the emailer.

Project Payday: A few months ago, I experimented with a way to make money quick online with a program called Project Payday. I took a day and researched this project online. Seemed real people were making real money with it. Not getting rich, but making enough extra money quickly to pay some bills or other stuff. The next day I signed up with Project Payday, watched the training video’s and browsed the Forums to get a feel as to how this program worked. In all, this process took me a few hours. The next day I followed the directions and made myself available for some “offers”. The first day, I made $55. The next day I hit it hard for about 6 hours and brought down $105 for my efforts. The following day, I worked 3 to 4 hours total and made $65. I soon found out one drawback to this program. It’s boring! No special skills are needed other than the know-how to operate your computer and use the Internet, but it is tedious work. I’m not cut out to spend hours behind a computer! Most people can make money quickly with this program, but you’ll have to put the time into it. The more time you put into it, the more money you’ll make generally. It’s not rocket science but you will have to keep track of the trials you sign up for. If you’re interested, check out Project Payday by clicking here. It’s free to sign up if you fill out an offer or you can buy directly into the program. Next you’ll need to read the promotional literature they have and watch the training video’s. They even have a guarantee that says if you follow the simple 4 step process in Method 1 and don’t make money in 24 hours, they’ll give you $100! This is the best guarantee I’ve seen online. I doubt anyone will need it though, because I found it easy to make money with Project Payday although it was boring computer work.
Read Emails – Taking Online Survey’s, etc: In my opinion, this isn’t as easy as Project Payday, but it’s real close. There are companies that receive thousands of emails every day that need to be read. Obviously the CEO or other employees can’t spend every day reading emails, so they outsource this. There are several companies where they outsource this type of work as well as other tedious, time consuming chores such as product testing, online surveys, online mystery shopping and other. Send Earnings is one such company that other companies outsource to. Consumers such as you sign up and are normally paid on a per assignment completed basis. The pay varies by what type of assignment you choose. You choose where you want to make money. Click Here to learn more or to sign up for this opportunity.
Become a Freelance Writer – Can you Write a sentence? Then you may have what it takes to make money as a Freelance Writer. You don’t have to have a degree in English either. In fact, if you can write in an easy to read manner, you have what it takes to make money writing Web content, short stories and other media. You can sell articles on Forums like DigitalPoint and SitePoint, but don’t expect to make a whole lot. Or you can sign up for a service like Real Writing Jobs. Basically this is a job board for Writers where Companies and Individuals needing Writers post their offers. You can either accept or reject them, it’s up to you. Click here for more information about the Freelance Home Writer program and learn how to make money as a Freelance Writer.
Make Money On Ebay - There are many ways to make money with eBay. It seems that the 2 most popular ways are either by going to Garage Sales or Estate Sales and buying stuff to resell. You can make some decent money this way. Back in 2001 I did this same thing for several months and I made around 1-1600 per month. But it was long hard work making all those auctions or driving around looking for deals at Garage sales. Another way that is becoming more and more popular is people starting their own online stores with the help of eBay. ProStores is an ebay company that offers several packages for you to start your online store. They do a lot of the work of getting set up for you. If this sounds interesting, give them a test drive. One Month Free Trial! ProStores – an eBay Company
Become an Online Tutor – I’m not sure what this pays, but I’ve known people in the past who have worked with companies like e-Tutor, SmartThinking and Tutor.Com. Online tutoring is an in-demand service and growing all the time. If you like helping others learn, this could be just the ticket for you. You will have to set aside a certain number of hours per week, anywhere from 2 hours on up on average depending upon which service you go with.
SwagBucks – Although you can’t make money directly with Swagbucks, you can earn free or deeply discounted gift cards and merchandise. You also earn free merchandise by browsing using the SwagBucks tool bar (downloading is easy and you’ll rack up points faster by using it to search the Internet with) and doing other things like taking polls and survey’s. I know several people who get their free merchandise like jewelry or electronics and then turn around and sell them for a nice profit on ebay and craigslist. If you surf the web a lot, then this may be just the thing for you. IMPORTANT: I spent weeks thinking I was racking up points with SwagBucks. I wasn’t BECAUSE I FORGOT TO LOG INTO MY SWAGBUCKS ACCOUNT!! You only get the points if you sign into your account and then surf the internet through their search engine, take their surveys and watch their video’s (there are other ways, but these are the ones I do). So remember, SIGN INTO YOUR SWAGBUCKS ACCOUNT BEFORE YOU SURF THE INTERNET AND USE THEIR SEARCH ENGINE to get the points!   I still can’t believe I was so brain dead as to forget to sign in! Oh well, now I sign in every time I surf the Internet or shop online and my points rack up quickly. I also watch their video’s and take their polls.
Become an Online Juror – Even Lawyers need to practice! There are places such a eJury and TrialJuries.Com that stage mock trials. The Jurors get paid anywhere from $5 to $60 depending on how complex the case is. There’s no guarantee you’ll get a case, but it has to better than cleaning up after the old folks at the Senior Citizen Center! Many colleges have access to these mock jury trials, but from what I’ve been told, they don’t pay as much as the online jury pools. Also, as with anything in life, if you slack off on the Jury, don’t expect to be called back. The more you pay attention and get involved, the more likely they’ll “keep your name around.”
Some college students show up on the first day in a bright shiny BMW convertible. Those are the ones who do not need help. For most College Students, a few extra dollars a month goes a long ways in making it easier to study for their classes. If you’re in a pinch, there’s no need to run down to the Blood Center to give blood, just turn your computer on and go to work with these quick and simple ways to make money fast.
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Solar System

India is a very small part of earth which is a very small part of the universe.We live in a very small part of the universe, what we call home.


MERCURY IS the closest planet to the Sun. Mercury is named for the Roman messenger god because it quickly appears and disappears from the morning and evening skies. Many astronomers have never seen Mercury because it's only visible a few days out of the year, and does not rise very far above the horizon.

VENUS is named after a goddess of beauty, the reality of this planet is far from its name. Venus is a very unpleasant place, with winds that blow constantly at hundreds of miles per hour and extremely high temperatures. This planet is an example of a runaway greenhouse effect on a planetary scale.
EARTH is in the planetary neighborhood, and as the saying goes, there's no place like home. Our planet is unique in the solar system, and not just because we live here. Did you know that Earth is only planet in the solar system that can have eclipses of the Sun?

MARS, Always known as the Red Planet,has probably been the source of more science fiction (good and bad) than any other planet. Mars is much smaller than Earth, but recent research shows that it once had flowing rivers. Mars also has a canyon that stretches over 2000 miles.

JUPITER The ruler of the night skies,is by far the largest planet in our solar system. Jupiter is so large that over 1300 Earths would fit inside it! It also makes up its own miniature solar system with its family of at least sixteen Moons!

SATURN The Ringed Planet, is probably the most visually stunning planet in our planetary neighborhood. Saturn's giant rings are actually made of of thousands of small particles of dust and ice. The divisions in the rings we see from Earth are caused by some of Saturn's smaller moons.

URANUS One of the mysterious gas giants, has rings like Saturn, but they are very faint and weren't discovered until the planet was visited by the Voyager spacecraft. The planet is also the only one in our solar system that lays on it's side instead of standing straight up.

NEPTUNE was the last stop that the ground breaking Voyager spacecraft made on its journey through the solar system. The amazing mission had one more surprise for us, though, as it found "geysers" on Triton, one of Neptune's moons.

PLUTO The most distant planet in our solar system,is so far away that the Sun is not much bigger or brighter than most of the other stars in its sky. Pluto also has a moon, Charon, that is nearly as big as the planet itself.
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रिम्पी और उसका परिवार-2

रिम्पी और उसका परिवार-2

उसने कहा- छोड़िये ! दर्द हो रहा है।
मैंने छोड़ दिया पर उस दिन खेल-खेल 8-9 बार उसकी........
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पति की कल्पना-2

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Famous Mathematicians

Below is the list of Famous Mathematicians of All Time : Worldwide

  1. Isaac Newton
  1. Carl F. Gauss
  1. Leonhard Euler
  1. Archimedes
  1. Bernhard Riemann 
  1. Euclid
  1. Henri Poincaré
  1. Joseph-Louis Lagrange
  1. David Hilbert
  1. Gottfried W. Leibniz 
  1. Alexandre Grothendieck
  1. Pierre de Fermat
  1. Niels Abel
  1. Évariste Galois
  1. John von Neumann
  1. Karl W. T. Weierstrass
  1. René Déscartes
  1. Augustin Cauchy
  1. Carl G. J. Jacobi
  1. Srinivasa Ramanujan 
  1. Brahmagupta
  1. Peter G. L. Dirichlet
  1. Hermann K. H. Weyl
  1. Eudoxus of Cnidus
  1. Georg Cantor 
  1. Muhammed al-Khowârizmi
  1. Arthur Cayley
  1. Emma Noether
  1. Pythagoras of Samos
  1. Leonardo `Fibonacci'

At some point a longer list will become a List of Great Mathematicians rather than a List of Greatest Mathematicians. I've expanded the List to an even Hundred, but you may prefer to reduce it to a Top Seventy, Top Sixty, Top Fifty, Top Forty or Top Thirty list, or even Top Twenty, Top Fifteen or Top Ten List.
  1. Kurt Gödel
  2. Apollonius of Perga
  3. Aryabhatta
  4. Charles Hermite
  5. Blaise Pascal 
  6. Pierre-Simon Laplace
  7. Richard Dedekind
  8. Diophantus of Alexandria
  9. Felix Christian Klein
  10. William R. Hamilton 
  11. Bháscara Áchárya
  12. George Boole
  13. François Viète
  14. Stefan Banach
  15. Ferdinand Eisenstein
  16. Jean le Rond d'Alembert
  17. Jacques Hadamard
  18. Gaspard Monge
  19. Johannes Kepler
  20. Jacob Bernoulli 
  21. Élie Cartan
  22. Joseph Fourier
  23. Liu Hui
  24. Jean-Victor Poncelet
  25. Archytas of Tarentum 
  26. André Weil
  27. Hipparchus of Nicaea
  28. Godfrey H. Hardy
  29. Siméon-Denis Poisson
  30. Julius Plücker
  31. F.E.J. Émile Borel
  32. Andrey N. Kolmogorov
  33. Christiaan Huygens
  34. Alhazen ibn al-Haytham
  35. John Wallis 
  36. L.E.J. Brouwer
  37. Michael F. Atiyah
  38. Pappus of Alexandria
  39. M. E. Camille Jordan
  40. Henri Léon Lebesgue 
  41. John E. Littlewood
  42. Carl Ludwig Siegel
  43. Jakob Steiner
  44. Joseph Liouville
  45. Girolamo Cardano
  46. Hermann G. Grassmann
  47. Jean-Pierre Serre
  48. Adrien M. Legendre
  49. Giuseppe Peano
  50. James J. Sylvester 
  51. Johann Bernoulli
  52. Atle Selberg
  53. Pafnuti Chebyshev
  54. Shiing-Shen Chern
  55. Francesco B. Cavalieri 
  56. Omar al-Khayyám
  57. Hermann Minkowski
  58. Hippocrates of Chios
  59. Johann H. Lambert
  60. Thabit ibn Qurra
  61. Marius Sophus Lie
  62. Panini (of Shalatula)
  63. Alan M. Turing
  64. Thales of Miletus
  65. Paul Erdös 
  66. Ernst E. Kummer
  67. Emil Artin
  68. Nicolai Lobachevsky
  69. Alexis C. Clairaut
  70. Jean Gaston Darboux 
  71. Albert Einstein
  72. James C. Maxwell
  73. Galileo Galilei
  74. Aristotle
  75. Abu Rayhan Biruni

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Endangered Species

What are Endangered Species?

Rare, endangered, or threatened plants and animals are elements of our natural heritage that are declining rapidly or are on the verge of vanishing. They are plants and animals that exist in small numbers that may be lost forever if we do not take quick action to stop their decline. If we cherish these species, like we do other rare and beautiful objects, these living organisms become treasures of the highest magnitude.

Why Preserve Endangered Plants and Animals?

Preservation of plants and animals is important, not only because many of these species are beautiful, or can provide economic benefits for us in the future, but because they already provide us many valuable services. These organisms clean air, regulate our weather and water conditions, provide control for crop pests and diseases, and offer a vast genetic "library" from which we can withdraw many useful items.

Extinction of a species could potentially mean the loss of a cure for cancer, a new antibiotic drug, or a disease-resistant strain of wheat. Each living plant or animal may have values yet undiscovered. Scientists estimate there are thirty to forty million species on earth. Many of these species are represented by dozens of genetically distinct populations. We know very little about most species; less than two million are even described. Oftentimes, we do not even know when a plant or animal becomes extinct. Game animals and a few insects are watched and studied. Other species need attention too. Perhaps in them may be found a cure for the common cold or a new organism that will prevent millions of dollars of loss to farmers in their constant fight against crop diseases.

There are many examples of a species' value to society. An antibiotic was discovered in the soils of the threatened New Jersey Pine Barrens Natural Area. A species of perennial corn was found in Mexico; it is resistant to several diseases of corn. An insect was discovered that when frightened produces an excellent insect-repelling chemical.

Why Have Species Become Endangered?
Habitat Loss

Loss of habitat or the "native home" of a plant or animal is usually the most important cause of endangerment. Nearly all plants and animals require food, water, and shelter to survive, just as humans do. Humans are highly adaptable, however, and can produce or gather a wide variety of foods, store water, and create their own shelter from raw material or carry it on their backs in the form of clothing or tents. Other organisms cannot.

Some plants and animals are highly specialized in their habitat requirements. A specialized animal in North Dakota is the piping plover, a small shorebird which nests only on bare sand or gravel on islands of rivers or shorelines of alkali lakes. Such animals are much more likely to become endangered through habitat loss than a generalist like the mourning dove, which nests successfully on the ground or in trees in the country or city.

Some animals are dependent on more than one habitat type and need a variety of habitats near each other to survive. For example, many waterfowl depend on upland habitats for nest sites, and nearby wetlands for food supplies for themselves and their broods.

It must be emphasized that habitat does not have to be completely eliminated to lose its usefulness to an organism. For example, the removal of dead trees from a forest may leave the forest relatively intact, but eliminate certain woodpeckers that depend on dead trees for nest cavities.

The most serious habitat loss totally changes the habitat and renders it unfit for most of its original resident organisms. In some areas, the greatest changes come from plowing native grasslands, draining wetlands, and constructing flood-control reservoirs.


Direct exploitation of many animals and some plants took place before conservation laws were enacted. In some places, exploitation was usually for human food or furs. Some animals, such as Audubon's sheep, were hunted to extinction. Others such as the grizzly bear, maintain remnant populations elsewhere.


The frequent presence of man and his machines may cause some animals to abandon an area, even if the habitat is not harmed. Some large raptors, like the golden eagle, fall into this category. Disturbance during the critical nesting period is especially harmful. Disturbance combined with exploitation is even worse.
What Are The Solutions?

Habitat protection is the key to protecting our rare, threatened, and endangered species. A species cannot survive without a home. Our first priority in protecting a species is to ensure its habitat remains intact.

Habitat protection can be done in a variety of ways. Before we can protect a plant's or animal's habitat, we need to know where this habitat is found. The first step, then is to identify where these vanishing species are found. This is being accomplished today by state and federal agencies and conservation organizations.

Second to identification is planning for protection and management. How can the species and its habitat be best protected, and once protected, how can we make sure the species continues healthy in its protected home? Each species and habitat is different and must be planned on a case-by-case basis. A few protection and management efforts have proven effective for several species, however.

Legislation was passed to protect the most endangered species in the United States. These special species cannot be destroyed nor can their habitat be eliminated. They are marked in the endangered species list by an *. Several federal and state agencies are beginning to manage threatened and endangered species on public lands. Recognition of private landowners who have voluntarily agreed to protect rare plants and animals is underway. All these efforts need to continue and be expanded to keep our natural heritage alive.

This resource is based on the following source: Bry, Ed, ed. 1986. The rare ones. North Dakota Outdoors 49(2):2-33. Jamestown, ND: Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. (Version 16JUL97).
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Famous Quotes

If you judge people, you have no time to love them 
Author: Mother Teresa

Let us more and more insist on raising funds of love, of kindness, of understanding, of peace. Money will come if we seek first the Kingdom of God-the rest will be given. 
Author: Mother TeresaWhat I do and what I dream include thee, as the wine must taste of its own grapes. 
Author: Elizabeth Barrett Browning

If we all worked on the assumption that what is accepted as true is really true, there would be little hope of advance. - Orville Wright

The benefits of education and of useful knowledge, generally diffused through a community, are essential to the preservation of a free government. - Sam Houston

I often quote myself. It adds spice to my conversation. - George Bernard Shaw

Be led by reason. - Greek Proverb

Only the educated are free. - Epictetus

Daring ideas are like chessmen moved forward; they may be beaten , but they may start a winning game. - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

The most important service rendered by the press and the magazines is that of educating people to approach printed matter with distrust. - Samuel Butler

Discovery consists of seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought. - Albert Gyorgyi

An education isn't how much you have committed to memory, or even how much you know. It's being able to differentiate between what you know and what you don't. - Anatole France

It should be possible to explain the laws of physics to a barmaid. - Albert Einstein

The wisdom of the wise and the experience of the ages are perpetuated by quotations. - Benjamin D'Israeli

The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them. - Albert Einstein

Discoveries are often made by not following instructions; by going off the main road; by trying the untried. - Frank Tyger

A time will come when men will stretch out their eyes. They should see planets like our Earth. - Christopher Wren

Great spirits have always found violent opposition from mediocre minds. - Albert Einstein

Whatever our souls are made up, his and mine are the same. 
Author: Emily Bronte

When one door of happiness closes, another opens; but often we look so long at the closed door that we do not see the one which has opened for us 
Author: Helen KellerWhere there is love there is life 
Author: Mahatma Gandhi

Whether you think that you can, or that you can't, you are usually right 
Author: Henry Ford

Half knowledge is worse than ignorance. - Thomas B. Macaulay

How little do they see what really is, who frame their hasty judgment upon that which seems. - Robert Southey

Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers. - Voltaire

Common sense is the knack of seeing things as they are, and doing things as they ought to be done. - Harriet Beecher Stowe

Seeking to know is too often learning to doubt. - Antoinette Deshoulieres

I mistrust the judgment of every man in a case in which his own wished are concerned. - Duke of Wellington

What we see depends mainly on what we look for. - John Lubbock

Some will never learn anything because they understand everything too soon.
Thomas Blount

Medicine being a compendium of the successive and contradictory mistakes of medical practitioners, when we summon the wisest of them to our aid, the chances are that we may be relying on a scientific truth the error of which will be recognized in a few years' time. - Marcel Proust.

Everytime you smile at someone, it is an action of love, a gift to that person, a beautiful thing. 
Author: Mother Teresa

I have found the paradox that if I love until it hurts, then there is no hurt, but only more love. 
Author: Mother Teresa

If you can't feed a hundred people, then feed just one. 
Author: Mother Teresa

Winning is not everything. It's the only thing. 
Author: Vince Lombardi
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PEACE QUOTES : Messages for peace, peace sayings ...

"I object to violence because when it appears to do good, the good is only temporary; the evil it does is permanent."
-- Mohandas K. Gandhi

"Mankind must put an end to war, or war will put an end to mankind...War will exist until that distant day when the conscientious objector enjoys the same reputation and prestige that the warrior does today."
-- John F. Kennedy

"War is as outmoded as cannibalism, chattel slavery, blood-feuds, and dueling, an insult to God and humanity...a daily crucifixion of Christ."

"There was never a good war or a bad peace." Benjamin Franklin

"War would end if the dead could return." Stanley Baldwin

"In peace sons bury fathers, but war violates the order of nature, and fathers bury sons." - Herodotus

"If the human race wishes to have a prolonged and indefinite period of material prosperity, they have only got to behave in a peaceful and helpful way toward one another."
-- Winston Churchill

"I prefer the most unfair peace to the most righteous war."
-- Cicero.

"War is cruelty and you cannot refine it."

"Never think that war, no matter how necessary, nor how justified, is not a crime"

Ernest Hemingway

"The quickest way of ending a war is to lose it"

George Orwell

" Nothing except a battle lost can be half so melancholy as a battle won."

Duke Of Wellington 1759-1852

"More than an end to war, we want an end to the beginning of all wars -- yes, an end to this brutal, inhuman and thoroughly impractical method of settling the differences between governments."
-- Franklin D. Roosevelt.

"Peace is not only better than war, but infinitely more arduous"
-- George Bernard Shaw

"We should take care, in inculcating patriotism into our boys and girls, that is a patriotism above the narrow sentiment which usually stops at one's country, and thus inspires jealousy and enmity in dealing with others... Our patriotism should be of the wider, nobler kind which recognises justice and reasonableness in the claims of others and which lead our country into comradeship with...the other nations of the world. The first step to this end is to develop peace and goodwill within our borders, by training our youth of both sexes to its practice as their habit of life, so that the jealousies of town against town, class against class and sect against sect no longer exist; and then to extend this good feeling beyond our frontiers towards our neighbours."

Lord Baden-Powell
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Samsung Galaxy Review

Samsung Galaxy is the latest mobile phone and everyone excited to find out the Samsung Galaxy review on the web. It is always expected from a company like Samsung to come up with something new every time and no doubt Samsung does keep it promise. After conquering the mobile phone arena with Samsung Corby series, Samsung has come with a series of smart phones which promises to be another impressive from Samsung. Samsung has various models under samsung galaxy series, we are giving here review of Samsung Galaxy 5.

Samsung Galaxy Review

The year 2010 saw the arrival of Samsung Galaxy 5 smart phone which has truly changed the vision of mobile phones. The following is the detail Samsung Galaxy review part wise.

Samsung Galaxy Design Review

Samsung galaxy 5 is very unique and has a texture and shape which is very much different from the traditional smart phones. The phone seems to be an incarnation of Samsung’s Corby which is very sleek. The shape of the phone trims down as one gradually moves to the end of the phone. The phone is designed in the traditional Samsung way of having a glossy plastic material for covering the back area of the phone. The phone can be said as below average in respect of looks but when it comes to display of the phone, the phone is over whelming and attracts every generation. The phone has a 2.8 inch capacitive touch screen which allows great screen touch use.

Samsung Galaxy Interface

The phone operates on Android 2.1 which acts the soul of the phone and renders great experience to the users. TouchWiz 3.0 has also made some significant contribution towards the superiority of the touch use interface.

Samsung Galaxy Camera and multimedia

Samsung Galaxy 5 comes with a 2 MP camera which offers great photo capture and video recording. The camera allows additional functions such as multiple shots and also other forms of shots which include shots in negative, sepia and grayscale form. The phone shoots videos at 15fps which is very good from an android phone’s version.

Samsung Galaxy models

Samsung Galaxy S GT-i9000
Samsung Captivate Galaxy S
Samsung Galaxy 3
Samsung Galaxy 5
Samsung Galaxy Apollo
Samsung Galaxy Tab
Samsung Mobile Price List in India
Samsung Galaxy Music Review

The music player in the phone is also very good which allows choice of tracks and selection among various playlists that yet again proves the user friendliness of the Smartphone. Presence of 3.5 mm headphones is also a key component as it can very well be used with other kinds of headphones which have the same jack. This adds flexibility in operations of the phones and its use.

Battery and performance

The phone runs on a 1200mAh battery which has a talktime of 9.5 hours and on standby basis the phone can go for 520 hours. The phone has also been provided with a better connectivity system which includes Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and 3G. All these packages makes it an ideal Smart phone to purchase, added to it, addition of internet browser helps one to stay connected to the social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Orkut.

Samsung Galaxy Price

Samsung Galaxy 5 is priced somewhere around Rs. 8,000 and it makes it an ideal item which needs to purchased at any cost. The facility provided in such a range is almost like a steal where people should think themselves to be lucky in availing such phone at such low prices. (See: Samsung Galaxy Price in India) The camera could have been better but still it is not bad along with the configuration of the phone. Rating would be 8 out of 10.
READ MORE - Samsung Galaxy Review

India may not be world's No.1 Test team for long: Geoffrey Boycott

Former England captain and opener Geoffrey Boycott has said that India may not be world's No.1 Test team for long after losing the Lord's Test by 196 runs.

In an article for The Telegraph, Boycott said that the England team is in a very healthy situation.

"They should polish India off in the second Test and press home the advantage they gained at Lord's, which marked the beginning of the end for India as the world's No.1 Test team," he said.

Admitting that there isn't too much to choose between the batting line-ups of the two sides', Boycott said: "There is strength in depth in both teams and we expect India to improve, but their bowling is not good enough to worry England."

He described Zaheer Khan as a quality bowler, but one who would find it difficult to survive four Test matches in five weeks.

"His ability has never been in doubt, but his fitness has always been a worry. It looks as if India can't risk him again now until the third Test at Edgbaston. If they do and he breaks down again they will look stupid," Boycott said.

He also said that off-spinner Harbhajan Singh appeared to be bowling too slow through the air.

"He is going to have to change his trajectory to make any impression," Boycott said.

"Praveen Kumar swings the ball beautifully both ways but unless it is a very helpful pitch he should not bother good batsmen at military medium pace," he added.

He said that Ishant Sharma was at present the tourists' best prospect, as he was tall, and had both bounce and movement, which could cause England batsmen problems in the rest of the series.

Back-up seamers Munaf Patel and S Sreesanth were military-medium and the latter was particularly exasperating and too expensive, Boycott said.

He predicted that the next three Test-match pitches will have to be very helpful to seam bowling or England will have to bat very badly to get out cheaply to this Indian attack.
READ MORE - India may not be world's No.1 Test team for long: Geoffrey Boycott

Samsung Hero 3213 Price, 3G Phone with Video Calling

Samsung Hero 3213

The Samsung Hero 3213 is a 3G Phone available in India at affordable price. The Samsung Hero E3213 3G phone supports Video Telephony, Multimedia features and high speed internet through HSPDA 3.6Mbps data.
Samsung Hero 3213 sports a 2 inch QVGA TFT display with 128×160 pixels screen resolution, a primary VGA camera, a seoncdary camera for video calling, video recording, FM Radio on Loudspeaker & FM Recording, and more multimedia features.

The Hero 3213 comes with 36MB internal memory and supports up to 8GB external memory. The handset is Java enabled and supports IM and Email messaging.
Samsung Hero E3213 Features and Specs:
Dimensions: 112.8 x 46.4 x 12.9 mm
Network: 3G
Data: HSPDA of 3.6Mbps
Display: 2 inch QVGA TFT Display
128×160 pixels screen resolution
VGA Camera Primary
Seconday Camera for Video Calls
Video Player and Recording
FM Radio with Loudspeaker and Recording
Internal memory: 36MB
up to 8GB external memory
SMS, MMS, IM and Email messaging
GPRS, EDGE, Bluetooh Data
Battery: Li-Ion 800 mAh standard
Tak time: up to 5.5 hours
Weight: 79.3g

Samsung Hero 3213 Price

The Samsung Hero E3213 3G phone is priced Rs. 3350 approx in India.
READ MORE - Samsung Hero 3213 Price, 3G Phone with Video Calling

Shipping Corporation Professionals vacancy July-2011

The Shipping Corporation Of India Ltd.
(A Government of India Enterprise)
5th Floor, shipping House, 245, Madame Cama Road, Mumbai-400021

Shipping Corporation of India has rewarding opportunities for young professionals for appointment at entry executive level as Assistant Manager with a probation period of one year.  Online applications are invited for the following disciplines in the pay scale of  Rs.20600-46500/- :
  1. Management : 06 posts
  2. Naval Architect : 04 posts
  3. Finance and Accounts : 08 posts
Age not exceeding 27 years as on 01/01/2011. Age relaxation for SC /ST/OBC/PH candidates will be given as per Govt.

Application Fee : A Demands draft of Rs.250/- for General / OBC Category (SC / ST / OBC candidates are exempted) drawn on a Mumbai payable to “The Shipping Corporation of India Ltd”.

How to Apply : Apply Online at SCI Website up to 02/09/2011 only. Take a printout of the system generated application and affix a recent passport size photograph on it, sign it and send it with application fee to following address on or before  06/09/2011 to to Post Box No. 2091,  Chennai - 600020A copy of the application should be kept for future record also.

For further detail, please visit 
READ MORE - Shipping Corporation Professionals vacancy July-2011

Faculy Positions in IIM Kashipur Uttarakhand July-2011

Indian Institute of Management (IIM) Kashipur 
(C/o IIM Lucknow)


Faculty Positions at IIM Kashipur 

The Indian Institute of Management Kashipur (IIML), established by Government of India,  invites applications for faculty positions of Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor in the following areas :

  • Business Communication, Decision Sciences (Statistics), Economics & Business Environment, Finance and Accounting, Human Resource Management, Information Technology and Systems, Legal Management, Marketing Management, Operations Management, Strategic Management 

Pay Scales :
  1. Assistant Professor : Rs. 15600-39100 grade pay Rs.8000
  2. Associate Professor : Rs.  37400-67000  grade pay Rs.9500
  3. Professor : Rs. 37400-39100 grade pay Rs.10500
How to Apply :   The complete application in a prescribed format  should reach to the Dean (AA), Indian Institute of Management Lucknow, Prabandh Nagar, Off Sitapur Road, Lucknow – 226013 or at  latest by 18/08/2011.

Please view for details and application form is available at
READ MORE - Faculy Positions in IIM Kashipur Uttarakhand July-2011

Jobs in Prathama Bank July-2011

Prathama Bank
Prathama Bhawan, Ram Ganga Vihar Phase-II
Post Box NO. 446, Moradabad-244001, Uttar Pradesh

Applications are invited from Indian Citizens for Appointment as Officer Scale I, Officer Scale II, Officer Scale III & Indian Citizens Domicile of Uttar Pradesh for Appointment as Office Assistant ( Multipurpose) in Prathma Bank :  

  1. Officer Middle Management Scale-III : 04 posts, Age : 21-40 years, Pay Scale : Rs.25700 – 31500/-.
  2. Officer Middle Management Scale-II : 09 posts,  Age: 21-32 years, Pay Scale : Rs.19400 – 28100/-
  3. Officer Junior Management Scale-I : 75 posts, Age : 18-28 years, Pay Scale : Rs.14500 – 25700/-
  4. Office Assistant (Multi Purpose) : 129 posts, Age :  18-28 years, Pay Scale : Rs.7200 – 18300/-

 Application Fee :  Rs. 400/- for GEN/OBC candidates and Rs 100/- for SC/ST/PWD candidates in the form of challan, candidates filling up all required information on the challan and paid in any branch of Syndicate Bank from 21/07/2011 to 12/08/2011.

How to Apply: Apply Online at Prathama Bank website from 21/07/2011 to to 12/08/2011 only. Take print out of the system generated application fom and send it to the desired address on or before 24/02/2011. 
READ MORE - Jobs in Prathama Bank July-2011


Trent Bridge Test: Tendulkar, Gambhir declared fit; Zaheer doubtful

Indian left-arm fast bowler Zaheer Khan is still a doubtful starter for the second Test against England to be played here from Friday, while Sachin Tendulkar and Gautam Gambhir have been declared fit for the game.
The Indian cricket team practised here for about four hours today and there were extended batting sessions for Tendulkar and Gambhir
The visitors began their practice session with a game of football and followed it up with a session of fielding before getting into the nets.
Zaheer was present on the ground in his tracks for about 30 to 45 minutes, but did not participate in any of the drills.
There is a possibility of either Munaf Patel or S Sreesanth coming into the squad in place of Zaheer.
England have named an unchanged squad for the second Test after winning the Lord's Test by 196 runs.

News : Dhoni Banned for 1 Test Match Plus 50% Match Fee

After loosing the first test against England, India are now in much more trouble as their skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni has now been Banned for next Test in the ongoing Series. Today the Match Referee Mr. SR Madugle sentenced the penalty in a Press Conference held at Lords Stadium, London. Dhoni is found guilty of slow over rate thrice in the same calender year. India now will be playing without Zaheer Khan and Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the two valuable players of the side. The decision was very much expected even during the first test match itself and had no special crickipedia knowledge. the penalty was always on the card for last 3 test matches. 

Dhoni had already made the same mistake twice in the same calender year and this was the third one and according to the rules of Cricketing Governing Body ICC no one is allowed to eat up the precious cricketing time on the field.

Source : PTI
India Touring England : 2011
READ MORE - News : Dhoni Banned for 1 Test Match Plus 50% Match Fee

Child Labour : Debate Help .::. Debate Topic : Pros and Cons

Author:Jacqueline Rose ( United Kingdom ) Jacqueline is a History student at Clare College, Cambridge. A former convener of the PriceWaterhouseCoopers Cambridge Union Schools Competition, she now runs workshops for intermediate level Cambridge debaters.

Created: Monday, December 02, 2002
Last Modified: Sunday, January 16, 2011

In the past activists have tried to encourage consumers to boycott companies using child labour by means of negative publicity about the conditions under which children work. The debate is partly, therefore, about whether such action (which may be ignored) is sufficient to force companies themselves to act, or whether it is more effective to use sanctions to pressurise governments into setting up national legal regulations (which might be avoided or repealed). However, there is a second issue: whilst it is normally deemed a truism that child labour is inherently bad, a subtler reasoning is sometimes illuminating. It is hard to see how child labour on family farms can be avoided, when countries do not have the resources to set up schools and to pay families a minimum income. Ultimately child labour ends up more as a question of solving poverty than a simple moral or emotional issue.
A model for a sanctions regime would need to take several details into account: both general ones regarding sanctions cases (by whom will sanctions be imposed? And to what extent will they be enforced?) and questions particular to this topic: what age is a ‘child’? Is child labour inherently a issue, or is the debate really about minimum labour standards for any employee?


There is an international duty on governments to uphold the dignity of man. This can only be done with the independence gained from education, a good quality of life and independent income. Child labour destroys the creativity and innocence of the young, and must be stopped.Whilst codes of ‘human rights’ are effective bases for enforcing political and legal standards, they are less effective in dealing with social and economic ones. It is realistic to use sanctions to enforce rights to free expression and the rule of law; impossible to force an impoverished state to maintain Western standards of education and labour laws, which did not exist when the West developed. This use of sanctions merely lessens their impact when used for the correct purposes.
Sanctions provide the only means of forcing states to take action. Consumer pressure is too weak to do so - whilst opinion pollsters are told their interviewees are willing to pay more for ethical products, very few people put this into daily practice.Consumer power has proven highly effective in the past in forcing trans-national companies to institute ethical practices. Boycotts of one producer lead others to act out of fear of negative publicity - the market takes care of the problem itself.
Pressure on trans-national companies is not enough. It is a fallacy to believe that all child labour equals sweatshop work for multinationals in poor countries. There is a difference between this, family labour on farms (in both developed and less developed countries), the use and trade of child prostitutes and countries who force children into their armies.Quite true - this is why sanctions, an inherently blunt instrument, will always fail. Imposing sanctions on whole states is unfair as they are not wholly responsible for the actions of individuals within them. Should we impose sanctions on the USA because illegal sweatshops have been found to exist there?
Ending child labour will allow the young to have greater chances of education and development. This will increase the human resources of a country for the future, thus encouraging economic growth. Their labour will be replaced by drawing from the large pool of underemployed adults in most developing countries; often these will be the parents of current child workers, so there will be little or no overall impact on family income.A utopian vision of all previously labouring children entering school is belied by evidence showing many either cannot afford to pay school fees or continue to work at the same time. In fact, many TNCs have now set up after-work schools within the very factories that activists criticise.
It is true that alternatives will need to be found to previous employment - but raising liquidity by loans secured on future earnings or micro-banking are both possible scenarios. The international community was able to place human rights over the cause of free trade in the cases of South Africa and Burma - so why not here?Placing sanctions on some companies will merely hide child labour underground. Moving children, who have to work from poverty, into unregulated and criminal areas of the economy will only worsen the situation. Is it really likely that the WTO, a bastion of free trade, would accept the restrictions that sanctions entail?
This is an argument for a targeted and more sophisticated use of sanctions, not against them in any form. Sometimes free market economics is simply an excuse for a denial of responsibility.Sanctions harm the poorest in society - companies will simply move to areas where the restrictions do not apply. Past experience has shown that government interference with the market does more harm than good.

This House believes that children should be free.
This House believes that education is the best economics.
This House would end child labour.
This House would put sanctions on states using child labour.
READ MORE - Child Labour : Debate Help .::. Debate Topic : Pros and Cons

Indiscipline : What People Say : Have an eye

Name: Germain,
Country: Other

i wanna say that indiscipline is really causing a meanace in all parts of the world in relation to children affairs. in my country ghana, many efforts has been made to help eliminate it and even our vice president has launched a campaign against it but we however hope and pray for the replenishment of the world
Name: truth,
Country: Mauritius

the one and only cause of indiscipline is bad influence of peer group and bad surroundings.
Name: suman,
Country: India

causes effects and remedies
Name: jessie,
Country: Malaysia

can anyone tell me causes of indiscipline in school please?
Name: wola,
Country: India

from nigeria,i want to know the causes,effects of indiscipline and how to stop indiscipline in schools.
Name: Hamdat,
Country: Other

let me know the causes and effect of indiscipline on academic performance of students
Name: Tope,
Country: Other

i want to know the causes and effect of indiscipline on academic performance of students
Name: sam,
Country: Malaysia

an article about disciplinary
Name: mas,
Country: Malaysia

i want to know about disciplanary among youth in malaysia
Name: salman,
Country: India

i want to know about the indicipline of student
Name: Akinrotimi seyi,
Country: Other

indiscipline is a general operation among young people .this is caused because they are not saved.
Name: condo,
Country: Kenya

i want to know the causes of indiscipline in school
Name: Amit,
Country: India

english ne ta bipta pai hai..!!!!
Name: feliwizzy,
Country: Other

i thing indicipline is a reflection of the homes the childen r coming from
Name: zaidi,
Country: Malaysia

causes of indiscipline in schools is not only cause of parental guidence but also include influences from member,bad influences that and also have a bad of influences from a peer group.
Name: anju,
Country: India

students are becoming quite notorious & indisciplined & i feel as if the teachers are bent upon destroying the future careers of the future citizens.
Name: destiny,
Country: Other

i am a nigerian. i want to know the causes the effect of indiscipline among the nigerian youths.
Name: veronica,
Country: India

i want to see indian cases of indiscipline-research work
Name: valdez,
Country: Other

indisipline in schools is partly blamed on the poor management
Country: Other

i am from nigeria,i want to know the causes,effects of indiscipline and how to stop indiscipline in schools. forward all answer to
Name: benjamin Heaven,
Country: Other

indiscipline in the eyes of the culprit is relative and normal and culturally bound
Name: Muhammad Galadima,
Country: Other

indiscipline is the main cause of our problems in nigeria, fear of god is the only way of salvation.
Name: mike,
Country: Other

i want to see the effects of indiscipline in schools
Name: Selvam (,
Country: Malaysia

as the head of discipline in a secondary school for the past ten years, i simply would like to say,everyone out there-government,parents and even teachers themselves are spoiling the future generation.looks as if no one is really concerned about 'real education' student discipline is not only the criterion for teaching and learning to occur but it is also the outcome of may e-mail to share further views.
Name: Eluwa Austin,
Country: Other

poverty is also a contributing factor, that causes indicipline amongst youths
READ MORE - Indiscipline : What People Say : Have an eye

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